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Having strong bones in childhood lays a foundation for bone health throughout life. We build almost all our bone density when we’re children and teens. The bone-building process is mostly finished around age 20. As adults, we still replace old bone with new bone, but more slowly. Over time, our bones get weaker.

Kids with strong bones have a better chance of avoiding bone weakness later in life. As a parent, you can help by making sure kids get the three key ingredients for healthy bones: calcium, vitamin D, and exercise.

1. Give Kids High-Calcium Foods
Calcium is a mineral that’s known for building healthy bones. It’s found in dairy products, beans, some nuts and seeds, and leafy green vegetables. It’s also often added to foods like orange juice or cereal.

What You Can Do

Encourage your kids to eat high-calcium foods:

  • If your child eats dairy, your doctor or dietitian can tell you how much to serve based on age. Younger kids may need 2–3 servings of low-fat dairy each day, while older kids may need 4 servings.
  • Look to replace common foods with high-calcium versions. Buy almond butter instead of peanut butter or calcium-fortified orange juice instead of regular juice.

2. Give Kids a Vitamin D Supplement
Vitamin D (sometimes labeled vitamin D3) helps the body absorb calcium. But most kids don’t eat many foods that contain vitamin D. Because vitamin D is so important, health care providers recommend all kids take a vitamin D supplement if they don’t get enough in their diet. Even babies need to take vitamin D unless they’re drinking at least 32 ounces of formula per day.

What You Can Do

Ask your doctor, nurse practitioner, physician assistant, or a dietitian how much vitamin D your child needs and the best way to get it.

3. Encourage Kids to Exercise
Our muscles get stronger the more we use them. The same is true for bones.

Weight-bearing activities like walking, running, jumping, and climbing are especially good for building bone. They use the force of our muscles and gravity to put pressure on our bones. The pressure makes the body build up stronger bone.

Activities like riding a bike and swimming don’t create this weight-bearing pressure. They are great for overall body health, but kids also need to do some kind of weight-bearing exercise.

What You Can Do
Make sure your child gets at least an hour of physical activity each day, including weight-bearing exercises.


Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries are a common type of knee disturbance sports persons undergo. However anybody can go through an ACL injury, this type of disturbance is related with athletes because it is caused by a fast halt movement which tends to occur more in modest activity than in day to day lifestyle.

The cruciate tendon is found inside the knee joint and many ACL injuries consequence with a full scratch. It’s also likely to injure your ACL to changing amounts. This means the muscle has become movable, although it’s still connected. It depends on the degree of the sprain; the knee can continue mostly steady. For those who do not play on the go sports, the wound might be treated with treatment or invigorating. In a case of a full rip, the muscle will not renovate itself. The only process to recover the knee to the point where the complete gesture is achievable with the help of surgery.

10 Facts about ACL Injuries

Osteoarthritis Risk: Around 50% of those with an ACL injury will grow osteoarthritis in recent years.

Higher Risk for Women: Female players get a higher proportion of risk for this injury than their male equivalents due to augmented lumbar angles placing more pressure on the knees.

Collateral Damage: Around 50% of those with ACL damage also have an injury to a tendon or other muscles in the knee.

Surgical Recommendation:  Surgery treatment is highly recommended for most ACL injuries when there is an amalgamation of wounds. A full tear in the ACL will not treat without surgery.

Higher Risk Sports: Football, soccer, and basketball entire one will get a higher risk of ACL injury, with other sports persons and non-athletes can undergo this injury.

Non-Contact Doesn’t Reduce Risk:  Around 70% of ACL injuries were continuous in non-contact sports while only 40% are accredited to contact sports.

Preemptive Training:  Preemptive training programs are reported to diminish knee injuries like ACL by as much as 60%.

Daily Training: For preventive training to be most effective, it is highly recommended that players retain a daily schedule of these workouts at least 2 or 3 times every week.

Exercises to Stop Injury:  Preemptive training workouts comprise strength, proprioception and bio feedback training. A correct loosening up may take as just as 10 or 15 minutes and as extended as one hour for a complete preemptive training period.

Benefits in Preventative Training

Preventative training workouts don’t simply reduce the risk of an ACL injury; they also recover the athlete’s performance level. Sports persons who retain a day to day schedule of preventative training also progress their skills in hurry speed and aerobic fitness.


What is an ankle sprain?

An ankle sprain is a wound to the hard crews of tissue (tendons) that mount and connect the bones of the limb to the foot. The injury all about ankle sprains usually occurs when you by accident turn or difficultly crack your ankle. This can be expanse or split the tendons that hold your ankle bones and joints together.

Things to know about an ankle injury       

The entire tendons have a wide range of motion and margins that enable them to keep the joints alleviated. When ligaments surrounding the ankle are hard-pressed past these margins, it causes a twist. Sprained ankles most normally encompass injuries to the tendons on the external of the ankle.

What causes an ankle sprain?   

An ankle sprain always happens when the base abruptly screws or rolls, forcing the ankle joint out of its regular point. However, physical activity should be performed; the ankle can turn inward hence due to abrupt or unpredicted movement. This causes one or more tendons around the ankle to give or tear.

Ankle sprains can occur to anybody at any age. Involving in sports, walking on rough surfaces, or even wearing inappropriate footwear can all cause this kind of injury.

What are the symptoms of an ankle sprain?   

You might have an injured ankle if you observe the following signs in the ankle:

  • swelling
  • tenderness
  • bruising
  • pain
  • inability to put weight on the affected ankle
  • skin discoloration
  • stiffness

The ankle can sustain several distinct types of wounds. It’s significant to see your specialist when you’re going through complications with your ankle. Your specialist can control whether the injury is a sprain or something more serious.

How is an ankle sprain diagnosed?

Dr. Dhananjay Gupta is one of the top orthopedic specialists and will do a physical test to regulate which tendons have been torn. All through the test, your surgeon may move your ankle joint in different ways to check your wide-ranging of motion.

Imaging tests, like X-rays, can also be ordered to consider a bone breakage. An MRI can be done if your surgeon doubts a fissure, a severe injury to the tendons, or fracture to the surface of the ankle joint. The MRI exam makes use of a robust magnetic area and radio waves to build thorough images of the body. This enables your specialist to provide an accurate diagnosis.

How is an ankle sprain treated?

When treating a wrenched ankle that may lead to retrieval and combat against sprain and distress. It’s vital not to put weight on the wounded area although you’re recuperating from an ankle sprain.

Dr. Dhananjay will advise you to stay off of your bruised ankle unless the pain diminishes. For minor sprains, this can take a week to 10 days. However, more severe injuries can typically choose several weeks to cure.



Osteoporosis is a medical condition which tends to affect people, mostly over 50 years of age with the weak and porous bones. It is one of the major health conditions which are affecting every other human being, these days.

Myths associated with Osteoporosis

There are several myths associated with Osteoporosis. Some of them are:

Medicines can restore bone mass. It’s a common myth, most people follow. Bone mass is developed by the age of mid-thirties. But, as you grow older, the bone mass tends to lower down. Most people believe a certain diet and medication can help them restore the lost bone mass. It’s not like that. Medication and a healthy diet can only help you in putting a bar on the rising issue. It’s impossible to restore the lost bone mass, you can only prevent the further degeneration.

It only occurs in women. To some extent, this myth is true. Women are highly affected with this trouble. But men also get affected by this issue. The reason behind the huge gap between the genders lies in the level of physical activity and diet undertaken by both. With proper care, women can somehow reduce the chances to get caught with the disease.

Young people are safe from this disease. That’s not true at all. Though, researches said that people in their thirties come across Osteoporosis, they are on the radar for being unaware about the harm they are doing in their early age. Proper care regarding the intake of Vitamin D and Calcium is advised to the youngsters to make them avoid early catch with the following disease.

Avoid falls. Most people believe that they could catch with the fracture, only when they fall. That’s not true with Osteoporosis. When you in the grip of this health trouble, you can face bone fractures even with the slightest strain. Thus, follow a mild exercise to avoid any serious injury.

Health facts about Osteoporosis

Know these important facts about Osteoporosis.

  • Osteoporosis is a medical condition that causes weak and porous bones.
  • Regular exercise helps in preventing the Osteoporosis.
  • Young men are more likely to face fractures than woman.
  • Men and women, both are prone to face this disease.
  • Medication can help in recovering from the disease, but it cannot be avoided, completely.

Osteoporosis is quite similar to Osteoarthritis and also categorized under degenerative disk disease. For better consultation, be in touch with your health specialist today.


Knee Arthroscopy is a new surgical methodology that has transformed how different kinds of orthopedic surgeries are performed. Today this minimally intrusive surgical intervention, in which a joint (arthro-) is detected (-scopy) with the help of a small camera with light, is used by almost every well-experienced knee surgeons to diagnose and treat knee injuries.

Describing the Procedure

After inserting a small camera, less than a fourth of an inch in diameter, into the cut given in the knee, it is then attached to a monitor so that the surgeon can view the knee tissue. Many a times the patients are also allowed to observe the surgery from this monitor.

Knee Arthroscopy is considered to be a normal and quite simple surgical procedure in which only local or regional anesthesia is given to numb the operation site. Throughout the surgery, the patient remains articulate and alert. But if the surgery is extensive as it can be in some cases, the patient is given general anesthesia, rendering the patient to sleep without pain.

After searching the knee to assess the damage, the surgeon will make four additional cuts for the insertion of other instruments which include a blunt hook, a shaver, a burr and a heat probe.

Reasons for the Surgery

The basic reasons due to which an arthroscopy is undertaken include:

  • repair or elimination of a torn meniscus
  • minor arthritis
  • exclusion of loose fragments of bone or cartilage floating within the knee joint
  • repair of a damaged anterior cruciate or posterior cruciate ligament
  • inflammation or impairment of the joint lining
  • alignment of a knee cap


Arthroscopy can successfully diagnose the joint condition of patients and this enables the surgeon to determine right kind of treatment for knee problems like ACL rupture, knee-cap disorder and torn meniscus. Arthroscopy is generally preferred by the surgeons because its recovery time is much faster than that of conventional open knee surgery. After an arthroscopy knee surgery, patient feels better as the knee mobility is improved. After the surgery the patient can live a normal and active life with greater comfort and almost no pain.

Recovery time

If you have undergone a simple debridement (meniscal cleaning) procedure, then the recovery is quick. Your surgeon will also prescribe you painkillers at the initial stage to control the pain.

If you have undergone with a complicated surgery that involves repairing and reconstruction of knee will result slower recovery time and can take several months to a year.


When patients with severe knee pain are left with Knee replacement surgery option as the only treatment, patients along with their family members have lots of question and concerns in their mind related to the surgery and recovery process.

  1. When is the right time to undergo a knee replacement?

There is no precise formula for determining when you should have a knee replacement. But if you have trouble getting up to answer the phone or walk to your car, you are the candidate. A thorough examination by a good orthopedic surgeon should recommend you. It might also be beneficial to receive a second opinion.

  1. Can the surgery be avoided?

For some change in the lifestyle, physical therapy, medication or some alternative treatment like acupuncture can help in managing the knee problem. So, you may speak to the orthopedic surgeon about other procedures that are commonly recommended for knee replacement surgery. But u must keep in mind that delaying or declining a necessary knee replacement could result in a less favorable outcome. So for surgery, the things should not be delayed endlessly.

  1. What happens during the knee replacement surgery and how long does the operation lasts?

During the surgery, the surgeon will move your kneecap and cuts away damaged bone and cartilages which can be replaced with new metal and plastic components. The component combines to form a synthetic but biologically compatible joint that is just like the movement of the natural knee.  Mostly the knee replacement surgery procedure takes 1.5 to 2 hours to complete.

  1. How much pain will I experience after the knee replacement surgery?

You will experience some pain but it should diminish quickly within four to five days max. You may receive nerve blocking the day of the surgery, or the surgeon may use a long-acting anesthetic during the surgery too with the pain relief postoperatively. The doctor will help you manage the pain which may be administered intravenously immediately after the surgery or may also be taken orally. after you have recovered from surgery you will experience significantly less pain in the knee but there is no way to predict the exact results as some of the patients have knee pain for a full year after the surgery.

  1. what should I expect during recovery and rehabilitation from knee replacement?

Most people are up and walking the next day with the help of the walker or crutches. A physical therapist will help you bend and straighten the knee.

After you return home therapy will continue regularly for weeks and you will be asked to engage in a specific exercise designed to improve the functionality of the knee. If your condition is more severe or if you do not have the needed support at home, your doctor may recommend you first stay at the rehabilitating or nursing facility.

  1. What activities will I be able to engage in?

You should be able to resume normal daily activities such as walking or bathing within several days. Low-impact exercise should be doable after your rehabilitation period which could be typically 6 to 12 weeks. Consult your therapist about introducing new activities during the rehabilitation period.

Avoid running, jumping, cycling and other impact activities. You can question your orthopedic surgeon about any questions concerning your activities.


Arthritis entails chronic soreness of one or more joints of the person’s body. Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis. In this, the cartilage in one or more joints deteriorates with time. Cartilage otherwise is a tough, rubbery substance which protects the end of the bones and allows it move easily. But with the degeneration of the cartilage, the smooth surface of the bones in the joints becomes pitted and rough. This can cause pain in the joints and also cause a problem in surrounding tissues. Over the time with the age of the individual, the cartilage may wear away completely. This causes the bones to rub together which causes severe pain.


Certain factors as known to have increased the risk of osteoarthritis. Some of these factors are beyond your control. However, you can diminish the risk of rising osteoarthritis from damage caused by lifestyle factors like overuse of joints, obesity, and posture

Family history:

Osteoarthritis sometimes runs in the family. If your parents or sibling have osteoarthritis you are most likely to have it too.


Osteoarthritis is directly connected to wear and tear on joints. It gets worse with the growing age of a person. According to the research by some institute, more than one-third adults who are over the age of 65 have symptoms of osteoarthritis.


Osteoarthritis can affect both men and women. According to the research of some institute its slightly more common in men until the age of 45. After that, it’s more common in women. This may reflect the different joint stressor experienced by men and women at different ages.

Previous injuries:

People who have injured a joint during the lifetime are more likely to develop osteoarthritis in that joint.


If the person is overweight or obese it puts extra stress on the body. This also increases the risk of osteoarthritis in the joints. People who are overweight or obese are particularly susceptible to this disease in the areas like knees, hips, and spine. However, obesity is also associated with osteoarthritis in non-weight -bearing joints such as those in the hands of a person. This clearly suggests that extra mechanical stress on the joints or weight alone may not increase osteoarthritis risk.

Certain occupations:

Repetitive actions like the one which puts undue stress on your joints and occupation like lifting heavy objects, kneeling, climbing stairs and walking, which requires repetitive actions can increase osteoarthritis risk. People who regularly participate in joint-intensive sports may also have an increased osteoarthritis risk.

Poor posture:

People commonly have a habit of sitting or standing improperly can stain your joints. This can increase the osteoarthritis risk.



The number of people who are opting for total knee replacement has increased during the past two decades. Physical therapy is one of the very essential parts of rehabilitation after total knee replacement. Total knee replacement is the procedure in which knee is replaced with an artificial joint. It requires a major surgery and hospitalization.

For an optimal outcome after total knee replacement surgery, it is important for patients to continue in an outpatient physical therapy program along with home exercise during the healing process. Patients will be asked to continue exercising the muscles around the replaced joint to prevent scarring and maintain muscles strength for the purposes of joint stability. These exercise after the surgery actually can reduce recovery time and lead to optimal strength and stability.

The wound where the operation was done will be monitored by the surgeon and also the staff for healing. Patience should also watch for the warning signs of infection. If important you may report it to the doctor immediately. Risks covers:

  • blood clots which can travel to lungs causing pulmonary embolism
  • Shortness of breath
  • chest pain
  • shock
  • urinary tract infection
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • chronic knee pain
  • bleeding into knee joint
  • infection of knee
  • risk of anesthesia

Future activities are generally limited to those that do not risk injuring the replaced joint. Sports that involve running or contact are avoided, such as golf and swimming. Swimming is ideal form of exercise since the sports improves muscles strength and endurance without exerting any pressure or stress on the replaced joint.

Patients with joint replacement should alert their doctors and dentist that they have an artificial joint. These joints are at risk for infection by infection introduced by any invasive procedure such as surgery, dental or gum procedure, urological and endoscopic procedure as well as infection anywhere else in the body.

There could be a second operation that has the total knee replacement. The second operation can be necessary because of loosening, fracture or other complication of the replaced joint. Second operation carries higher risk of complications. Future devices and techniques will improve patient’s outcomes and lead to fewer complications.

Dr Dhananjay Gupta

Dr Dhananjay Gupta
Director and Senior Consultant,
Orthopaedics and Joint Reconstruction and Replacement Surgeon
Fortis Flt. Lt. Rajan Dhall Hospital, Vasant Kunj, Delhi.

Disclaimer: The content on this website ( is solely for the purpose of educating and creating awareness about the domain i.e. Orthopedic. This shall not be treated as a substitute to a professional Orthopedic surgeon's advice or prescription. Every individual and their case is different, so the results of any of the treatments mentioned on the website may vary.